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Single Pass HW Piping

Have you ever wondered how large buildings manage their hot water systems efficiently?

Let me walk you through our advanced system that exemplifies modern thermal efficiency.

Our setup includes three key tanks: two primary storage tanks and a swing tank.  

Initially, the first two tanks store hot water pre-heated by the system. No water is wasted even when it's not in use!

When a building occupant turns on a faucet, it triggers a "demand event."

The swing tank, which is at a lower temperature due to handling heat loss from building recirculation, springs into action. Still, at a usable temperature, the water from this tank is sent through a mixing valve to meet the immediate demand.

Simultaneously, hot water from the first storage tank transfers to the middle tank and then to the swing tank, boosting the water temperature as it moves through the system to the building.

What's remarkable is the efficiency of the process:

  1. Sequential Flow and Heating: Water moves smoothly from the left tank, through the middle, to the swing tank, and out to the building.

  2. Continuous Heating: Even as the water cools in the first tank, our heat pump re-heats it, moving it to the middle tank to maintain optimal temperatures.

  3. Recirculation Integration: Return water from the building feeds into the swing tank, ensuring no heat is wasted.



Post-demand, the system doesn’t just stop; it continues to maintain and prepare for the next use, ensuring both tanks reach and maintain the set temperature, ready for the next cycle.

This system isn't just about heating water; it’s about strategic temperature control and efficiency, reducing operational costs, and enhancing sustainability.


The Single Pass HW Piping design is crucial for maintaining continuous heat with minimal energy waste, revolutionizing how hot water is delivered in expansive environments.

For more educational HVAC content, visit our YouTube Channel HVAC-TV, and The Engineers HVAC Podcast.

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